Archive for the 'space' Category

27
May
15

Exhibition: ‘Hal Fischer, Gay Semiotics, 1977/2014′ at the Fotomuseum Winterthur, Zürich

Exhibition dates: 8th May – 7th June 2015

 

I remember coming out in 1975, six years after Stonewall, that seismic event that was the out and proud culmination of the resistance to oppression that had been building since the Second World War. Pre-disco, pre-Heaven night club (opened in December 1979) young gay men like me went to pubs in the Soho and Earl’s Court district of London and to places like Bang! nightclub on Tottenham Court Road (opened 1976). I used to wear an earring in my left ear, keys on the left, handkerchiefs to all the fetish nights at Heaven, and speak a queer language that secretive gay men had to speak in straight places… Polari (or alternatively Parlare, Parlary, Palare, Palarie, Palari; from Italian parlare, “to talk”).

“Polari is a form of cant slang used in Britain by actors, circus and fairground showmen, merchant navy sailors, criminals, prostitutes, and the gay subculture. There is some debate about its origins, but it can be traced back to at least the nineteenth century and possibly the sixteenth century… Polari is a mixture of Romance (Italian or Mediterranean Lingua Franca), London slang, backslang, rhyming slang, sailor slang, and thieves’ cant… It was a constantly developing form of language, with a small core lexicon of about 20 words (including bona, ajax, eek, cod, naff, lattie, nanti, omi, palone, riah, zhoosh (tjuz), TBH, trade, vada), and over 500 other lesser-known words.

Polari was used in London fishmarkets, the theatre, fairgrounds and circuses, hence the many borrowings from Romany. As many homosexual men worked in theatrical entertainment it was also used among the gay subculture, at a time when homosexual activity was illegal, to disguise homosexuals from hostile outsiders and undercover policemen. It was also used extensively in the British Merchant Navy, where many gay men joined ocean liners and cruise ships as waiters, stewards and entertainers. On one hand, it would be used as a means of cover to allow gay subjects to be discussed aloud without being understood; on the other hand, it was also used by some, particularly the most visibly camp and effeminate, as a further way of asserting their identity.” (Text from Wikipedia)

For example “vada the bona omi” was a “look at the good man”, “spark out on his palliass” was “flat out on his back”, and “he had huge lallies” which was “he had huge legs” (more terms can be found on the Polari – British gay slang web page). Another favourite was “trolling the Dilly” which means “to cruise or walk about Pica/dilly” where the rent boys (known as Dilly boys) used to line up against the railings looking for customers or “trade”. In this context “trolling” could be seen as a form of gay flâneur. Wikipedia states that Polari had begun to fall into disuse amongst the gay subculture by the late 1960s, but in my experience this is not true. Within my circle of friends it was still in constant use into the early 1980s. The language was very useful in pubs in London where sailors, ruff trade, and the theatre crowd mixed in Soho, were you could comment to a gay friend on a man that you thought attractive and anyone overhearing your conversation would not know what you were talking about.

All this must seem rather quaint now, but the archetypal images of gay men have not changed much over the intervening years. There is still the natural young gay man, the bear, the leatherman (or those that just wear leather for dance parties, just for show and not for attitude), the S/M scene, still the handkerchief code (still seen though rarely these days), the armband on the left or right for active or passive, still the gay jocks but now much more the gym preened bunnies. Everything old is new again… it’s just less heterogeneous.

Marcus

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Many thankx to the Fotomuseum Winterthur for allowing me to publish the photographs in the posting. Please click on the photographs for a larger version of the image.

All photographs by Hal Fischer from Gay Semiotics, 1977/2014, Courtesy Hal Fischer, and Cherry and Martin, Los Angeles © Hal Fischer

 

In 1977, Hal Fischer produced his photo-text project Gay Semiotics, first as a series of silver gelatin prints and then as a book published by NFS Press. The project explored the growing visibility of the male gay community in the Castro district of San Francisco, particularly its street style and so-called ‘hanky codes’ indicating different sexual preferences. Fisher’s series was one of the earliest attempts to explore a queer semiotics, offering a playful engagement with male self-fashioning and archetypes. Gay Semiotics is both a marker of the self-confidence and creativity of the San Francisco gay community before the emergence of HIV/AIDS and an important contribution to West Coast conceptual photography.

 

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Blue Handkerchief, Red Handkerchief
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Keys
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Leather Apparel
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Gag Mask
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Amyl Nitrite
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Earring
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

 

JBW: Gay Semiotics is an attempt to map some of the discourse of structuralism onto the visual codes of male queer life in the Castro. How did you come to structuralism?

HF: Thanks to Lew Thomas, in graduate school I began reading things like Jack Burnham’s The Structure of Art and Ursula Meyer’s Conceptual Art. Those were two key texts. Of course, structuralism came late to photography, when you consider that Susan Sontag’s Against Interpretation came out in 1966. Reading Burnham, going on to read Claude Lévi-Strauss, all that was crucial. I learned about signifiers, and thought, this is going on all around me.

JBW: You’re doing several things in Gay Semiotics. On the one hand, you’re parsing a signification system that arose out of a nonverbal, erotic exchange, and you’re also deconstructing gay male self-fashioning and photographing “archetypes.” It is thus a photo-project about the history of photography and its long legacy of ethnographic typing.

HF: I can’t say I was conscious of it at the time, but one of the first photographers who influenced me was August Sander. I mean, I LOVED Sander. I still do. I probably was a fascist in an earlier life, because I’m definitely into types, and I’m definitely into archetyping. I don’t really think it’s that awful a thing to do; it can be very informative. I was also interested in the Bechers and the notion of repetition.

JBW: So the work is also about genre.

HF: Yes. It’s also about personal desire; it’s a lexicon of attraction.”

Extract from Julia Bryan-Wilson speaking with Hal Fischer. Aperture magazine #218, Spring 2015

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Signifiers for a Male Response
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Street Fashion Basic Gay
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Street Fashion Jock
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Street Fashion Forties Trash
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Street Fashion Hippie
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Street Fashion Uniform
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Street Fashion Leather
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Archetypal Media Image Leather
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Archetypal Media Image Urbane
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Archetypal Media Image Western
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Archetypal Media Image Classical
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Archetypal Media Image Natural
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Dominance
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Sadism & Masochism
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Submisison
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Bondage Device Cross
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Bondage Device Open End Table Rack
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

Hal Fischer from 'Gay Semiotics' 1977

 

Hal Fischer
Bondage Device Meat Hoist
1977/2014
Inkjet print

 

 

Fotomuseum Winterthur
Grüzenstrasse 44 + 45
CH-8400
Winterthur (Zürich)

Opening hours:
Tuesday to Sunday 11 am – 6 pm
Wednesday 11 am – 8 pm
Closed on Mondays

Fotomuseum Winterthur website

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23
May
15

Andy Warhol unplugged 2

May 2015

 

Andy Warhol being, well … Andy Warhol.

Artist, tourist, celebrity, poofter, man about town and spontaneous, thoughtful snapper. The photograph of the Prado at night is superb as are the multiple, stitched together photographs. Warhol certainly loves his high key, 35mm images.

Marcus

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Please click on the photographs for a larger version of the image.

 

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Air France' 
dated JUN 21 1982

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Air France
Jun 21 1982
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Cessna Plane'
 c. 1977

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Cessna Plane
c. 1977
Four stitched gelatin silver prints
Each: 11 x 14 in. (27.9 x 35.6 cm.); overall: 21¼ x 27⅜ in. (54 x 69.5 cm.)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) '
City View
' May 07 1984

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
City View

May 07 1984
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Houston Skyline' c. 1979

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Houston Skyline
c. 1979
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'German Trolley
' Jun 23 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
German Trolley

Jun 23 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Limousine Interior' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Limousine Interior
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Luxor Temple' c. 1977

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Luxor Temple
c. 1977
Two unique gelatin silver prints
Each: 8 x 5 in. (20.3 x 12.7 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 Luxor Temple (detail) c. 1977

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Luxor Temple (detail)
c. 1977
Two unique gelatin silver prints
Each: 8 x 5 in. (20.3 x 12.7 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Ocean Landscape' 1986

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Ocean Landscape
1986
Four stitched gelatin silver prints
Each: 11 x 14 in. (27.9 x 35.6 cm.); overall: 21¼ x 27½ in. (54 x 69.9 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Statues Outside Musée D'Orsay' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Statues Outside Musée D’Orsay
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Monastery of Saint John of the Kings, Toledo' Jan 24 1983

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Monastery of Saint John of the Kings, Toledo
Jan 24 1983
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Museo del Prado Exterior, Madrid, Spain' Jan 24 1983

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Museo del Prado Exterior, Madrid, Spain
Jan 24 1983
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Spanish Portico' 
Jan 24 1983

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Spanish Portico
Jan 24 1983
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Richard Coeur de Lion at Westminster' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Richard Coeur de Lion at Westminster
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Pyramid' c. 1977

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Pyramid
c. 1977
Unique gelatin silver print
5 x 8 in. (12.7 x 20.3 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Street Scene' c. 1982

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Street Scene
c. 1982
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
 'Riders from the Car' c. 1979

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Riders from the Car
c. 1979
Two unique polaroid prints mounted on board
Each: 4¼ x 3⅜ in. (10.8 x 8.6 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Unidentified Men' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Unidentified Men
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Venetian Canal' 1977

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Venetian Canal
1977
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Table Setting' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Table Setting
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Beach Scene' c. 1975

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Beach Scene
c. 1975
Unique polaroid print
4¼ x 3½ in. (10.8 x 8.8 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Place de la Concorde' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Place de la Concorde
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
10 x 8 in. (25.4 x 20.3 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Rockefeller Center' c. 1984

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Rockefeller Center
c. 1984
Unique gelatin silver print
10 x 8 in. (25.4 x 20.3 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Sears Tower' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Sears Tower
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
10 x 8 in. (25.4 x 20.3 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Max Delys at the Saloon' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Max Delys at the Saloon
c. 1980
Unique polaroid print mounted on board
4¼ x 3⅜ in. (10.8 x 8.5 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Union Square' c. 1975

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Union Square
c. 1975
Unique polaroid print
4¼ x 3⅜ in. (10.8 x 8.5 cm)

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) 'Tunnel' c. 1980

 

Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Tunnel
c. 1980
Unique gelatin silver print
8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm)

 

 

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20
May
15

Exhibition: ‘The Feminist Avant-Garde of the 1970s: Works from the SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Vienna’ at Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg

Exhibition dates: 13th March – 31st May 2015

 

Early Cindy Sherman, very good; Francesca Woodman, wow; but Ana Mendieta, you are a star!

Marcus

.
Many thankx to the Hamburger Kunsthalle for allowing me to publish the photographs in the posting. Please click on the photographs for a larger version of the image.

 

Featuring 34 international women artists, this wide-ranging exhibition highlights the early days of the feminist art movement. With over 150 major works drawn from the SAMMLUNG VERBUND in Vienna, it documents how female artists in the 1970s began collectively reshaping the “image of woman” – something that had never happened before in the history of art. During this period, increasing numbers of women who had been born during or just after the Second World War had the opportunity to study at an art school or academy, enabling them to emancipate themselves from the traditional role of artist’s muse or model. Dr Gabriele Schor, director of the SAMMLUNG VERBUND, coined the term “feminist avant-garde” to highlight the pioneering role played by these artists.

The female artists have turned to new media such as photography, film or video, due to the fact that these are not laden with art-historical baggage; others employ performance or action-based art as their chosen means of expression. Along with artists such as VALIE EXPORT, Cindy Sherman and Martha Rosler whose work is familiar to a wide audience, the exhibition also provides a rare opportunity to discover some equally accomplished but less well-known members of the “feminist avant-garde”.

 

 

VALIE EXPORT (*1940) 'Tapp und Tastkino' 1968

 

VALIE EXPORT (*1940)
Tapp und Tastkino
1968
Video, S/W, Ton
© VALIE EXPORT / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2015 / Courtesy of Galerie Charim, Wien / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Birgit Jürgenssen (1949-2003) 'Nest' 1979

 

Birgit Jürgenssen (1949-2003)
Nest
1979
S/W-Photographie
© Estate of Birgit Jürgenssen / Courtesy of Galerie Hubert Winter, Wien / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2014/2015 / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Ulrike Rosenbach (*1943)  'Art is a criminal action No. 4' 1969

 

Ulrike Rosenbach (*1943)
Art is a criminal action No. 4
1969
S/W-Photographie auf Barytpapier
© Ulrike Rosenbach / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2015 / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Francesca Woodman (1958-1981) 'Untitled Rome, Italy' 1977-1978/2006

 

Francesca Woodman (1958-1981)
Untitled Rome, Italy
1977-1978/2006
S/W-Photographie auf Barytpapier
© Courtesy George and Betty Woodman, New York / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

 

“Featuring 34 international women artists, this wide-ranging exhibition highlights the early days of the feminist art movement. With over 150 major works drawn from the SAMMLUNG VERBUND in Vienna, it documents how female artists in the 1970s began collectively reshaping the “image of woman” – something that had never happened before in the history of art. During this period, increasing numbers of women who had been born during or just after the Second World War had the opportunity to study at an art school or academy, enabling them to emancipate themselves from the traditional role of art­ist’s muse or model. Dr Gabriele Schor, director of the SAMMLUNG VERBUND, coined the term “femi­nist avant-garde” to highlight the pioneering role played by these artists.

They went on to create works that challenged social norms and the mechanisms of the art business, developing radical new artistic practices and breaking with a male-dominated reality. Against the back­ground of the civil rights movement and the women’s movement, feminist issues emerged as a matter of public debate: the personal was now political. Within a very short period of time, women began rais­ing awareness and gaining public recognition by organising collective actions, demonstrations and in­dependent exhibitions. The artists of the “feminist avant-garde” have examined how traditional images determine the perception of women and how they construct their own personal and social identity. Their work addresses a wide range of themes, such as the relegation of women to the one-dimensional role of housewife and mother, the use of one’s own body in art, female sexuality, notions of beauty and violence against women.

The female artists undermine the stereotype roles in a subversive way. Martha Rosler, for example, us­es exaggeration and parody to criticise women’s traditionally domestic role, and Birgit Jürgenssen tied a cooker around her neck like an apron in her work Hausfrauen-Küchenschürze. By playing with the camera or employing masquerade and costumes as an effective means of self-representation, women artists have challenged conventional notions of identity or femininity and exposed these as social con­structs. Cindy Sherman, Suzy Lake, Hannah Wilke and Martha Wilson cast themselves in a variety of roles for their photographic investigations into everyday and historical clichés. In a similar way, Lynn Hershman Leeson created a fictional alter ego as “Roberta Breitmore” and enacted this character for a number of years. While accepted cultural ideals of beauty and perfection play an important role for all of the artists mentioned above, these themes are specifically and impressively addressed in the work of Rita Myers and Ewa Partum.

Numerous women artists have turned to new media such as photography, film or video, due to the fact that these are not laden with art-historical baggage; others employ performance or action-based art as their chosen means of expression. VALIE EXPORT, for example, invited passers-by on Munich’s Stachus square to visit her Tapp-und Tastkino – meaning that they could put their hands inside a box she was wearing over her naked chest. Female artists have often exploited their own bodies as art material, whereby some – such as Ana Mendieta or Gina Pane – have pushed themselves to the very limits of physical endurance. Using humour, irony, subtlety and provocation, the artists of the “feminist avantgarde” have deconstructed the traditional female iconography.

Along with artists such as VALIE EXPORT, Cindy Sherman and Martha Rosler whose work is familiar to a wide audience, the exhibition also provides a rare opportunity to discover some equally accomplished but less well-known members of the “feminist avant-garde”.

The SAMMLUNG VERBUND was founded in 2004 in Vienna by VERBUND, Austria’s leading producer of electricity from hydropower. The collection focuses on international contemporary art from 1970 to the present day, with a unique emphasis on the Feminist Avant-garde of the 1970s.

Featured artists: Helena Almeida (*1934, Portugal), Eleanor Antin (*1935, USA), Lynda Benglis (*1941, USA), Renate Bertlmann (*1943, Österreich), Teresa Burga (*1935, Peru), Lili Dujourie (*1941, Belgien), Mary Beth Edelson (*1933, USA), Renate Eisenegger (*1949, Deutschland), VALIE EXPORT (*1940, Österreich), Esther Ferrer (*1937, Spanien), Lynn Hershman-Leeson (*1941, USA), Alexis Hunter (1948-2014, Neuseeland, England), Sanja Iveković (*1949, Kroatien), Birgit Jürgenssen (1949-2003, Österreich), Ketty La Rocca (1938-1976, Italien), Leslie Labowitz (*1946, USA), Suzanne Lacy (*1945, USA), Suzy Lake (*1947, USA), Karin Mack (*1940, Österreich), Ana Mendieta (1948-1985, Kuba/USA), Rita Myers (*1947, USA), ORLAN (*1947, Frankreich), Gina Pane (1939-1990, Frankreich), Ewa Partum (*1945, Polen), Ulrike Rosenbach (*1943, Deutschland), Martha Rosler (*1943, USA), Carolee Schneemann (*1939, USA), Cindy Sherman (*1954, USA), Penny Slinger (*1947, England), Annegret Soltau (*1946, Deutschland), Hannah Wilke (1940-1993, USA), Martha Wilson (*1947, USA), Francesca Woodman (1958-1981, USA), Nil Yalter (*1938, Ägypten/Frankreich).”

Press release from the Hamburger Kunsthalle website

 

Renate Bertlmann (*1943) 'Zärtliche Pantomime' 1976

 

Renate Bertlmann (*1943)
Zärtliche Pantomime [Tender Pantomime]
1976
S/W-Photographie (aus einer 6-teiligen Serie)
© Renate Bertlmann / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

 Renate Eisenegger (*1949)  'Hochhaus (Nr.1)' 1974

 

Renate Eisenegger (*1949)
Hochhaus (Nr.1)
1974
S/W-Photografie auf Holz kaschiert (aus einer 4-teiligen Serie)
© Renate Eisenegger / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Alexis Hunter (1948-2014) 'Approach to Fear Voyeurism' 1973

 

Alexis Hunter (1948-2014)
Approach to Fear Voyeurism
1973
Silver bromide photography, painted with colored ink (from a 12-part series)
© Alexis Hunter / Courtesy of Richard Saltoun, London / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2015 / SAMMLUNG VERBUND , Wien

 

Birgit Jürgenssen (1949-2003) 'Untitled (Self with pelts)' 1974/1977

 

Birgit Jürgenssen (1949-2003)
Ohne Titel (Selbst mit Fellchen) [Untitled (Self with pelts)]
1974/1977

 

Lynn Hershman-Leeson (*1941) 'Roberta Construction Chart #1' 1975

 

Lynn Hershman-Leeson (*1941)
Roberta Construction Chart #1
1975
C-Print
© Lynn Hershman Leeson / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Ana Mendieta (1948-1985) 'Untitled (Glass on Body Imprints)' 1972/1997

 

Ana Mendieta (1948-1985)
Untitled (Glass on Body Imprints)
1972/1997
C-Print (from a 6-part series)
© The Estate Ana Mendieta / Courtesy of Galerie Lelong, New York / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Ulrike Rosenbach (*1943) 'Weiblicher Energieaustausch, Venus' 1975–1976

 

Ulrike Rosenbach (*1943)
Weiblicher Energieaustausch, Venus [Female Energy Exchange, Venus]
1975-1976
S/W-Photografie auf PE Papier (aus einer 3-teiligen Serie)
© Ulrike Rosenbach / Bildrecht, Wien, 2015 / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Cindy Sherman  (*1954) 'Untitled #443 (Bus Riders II)' 1976/2005

 

Cindy Sherman (*1954)
Untitled #443 (Bus Riders II)
1976/2005
© Cindy Sherman, New York
Courtesy: Metro Pictures, New York/ SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Cindy Sherman (*1954) 'Untitled (Bus Riders I)' 1976/2000

 

Cindy Sherman (*1954)
Untitled (Bus Riders I)
1976/2005 (from a 15-part series)
© Cindy Sherman, New York
Courtesy: Metro Pictures, New York/ SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Cindy Sherman (*1954) 'Untitled (Lucy)' 1975/2001

 

Cindy Sherman (*1954)
Untitled (Lucy)
1975/2001
Silbergelantineabzug
© Cindy Sherman, New York
Courtesy: Metro Pictures, New York / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Penny Slinger (*1947) 'Wedding Invitation – 2 (Art is Just a Piece of Cake)' 1973

 

Penny Slinger (*1947)
Wedding Invitation – 2 (Art is Just a Piece of Cake)
1973
S/W-Photografie
© Penny Slinger / Courtesy of the Artist and Broadway 1602, New York / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien

 

Annegret Soltau (*1946) 'Selbst' 1975

 

Annegret Soltau (*1946)
Selbst [Myself]
1975
B/W photograph on baryta paper (from a 14-part series)
© Annegret Soltau / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2015 / SAMMLUNG VERBUND, Wien
Photo: Heide Kratz

 

 

Hamburger Kunsthalle
Glockengießerwall 20095 Hamburg
Tel: +49 (0)40-428 131 204

Opening hours:
Tuesdays to Sundays 10 am – 6 pm
Thursdays 10 am – 9 pm
Closed Mondays

Hamburger Kunsthalle website

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17
May
15

Exhibition: ‘Hold That Pose: Erotic Imagery in 19th Century Photography’ at the Kinsey Institute, Bloomington, Indiana Part 2

Exhibition dates: 23rd January – 4th September 2015

Kinsey Institute Gallery, Indiana University

*PLEASE NOTE THIS POSTING CONTAINS ART PHOTOGRAPHS OF HUMAN EROTIC ACTIVITY AND NUDITY – IF YOU DO NOT LIKE PLEASE DO NOT LOOK, FAIR WARNING HAS BEEN GIVEN*

 

 

Part 2 of this special posting of photographs from the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction.

I especially like the allusion to Romanticism and class in Bijoux 118 (catalog card) (below) through the picture on the wall behind the copulating couple; and the allusion to the landscape and the sublime in Man performing analinctus on another man (1885-1900, below) through the painted studio backdrop. The sheer pleasure on the faces of some of the people in these photographs, such as in Clothed man kneeling behind a nude woman (1884-1886, below) is a joy to behold.

Dr Marcus Bunyan

.
Many thankx for the Kinsey Institute for allowing me to publish the photographs in the posting. Please click on the photographs for a larger version of the image.

 

 

The Kinsey Institute research collection contains thousands of examples of erotic imagery produced over centuries by artists around the world. When the new technology of photography was announced in France in 1839, it was not long before it became the most popular medium for depictions of the nude figure, as well as erotic imagery. The first photographic process to be widely used was the daguerreotype, which produced a unique image. With the invention of other processes that used negatives to make multiple prints, the mass production of erotic photographs became possible. Hold That Pose features daguerreotypes, tintypes, albumen and gelatin silver prints, stereocards, and other examples of photographic processes that were used by professional photographers in the 19th century to produce and distribute erotic material.

 

 

Unknown photographer. 'Female nude' 1850s

 

Unknown photographer
Female nude
1850s
Daguerreotype in case

 

W.H. Gilbert Tate (London, England) 'Portrait of an actress' c.1870

 

W.H. Gilbert Tate (London, England)
Portrait of an actress
c.1870
Albumen print (carte de visite)

 

 

Cartes de visite and cabinet cards

Mass produced on cheap paper or cardstock, actress cards served as cartes de visite – photographic cards left as messages – and as collectible portraits of popular stars of the theater in London and Paris.  One could purchase larger photographs, known as cabinet cards, from the photography studio or the pocket-sized cartes de visite. In an era when women were expected to stay at home, living quiet lives as wives and mothers, actresses were seen as having turned their backs on their ‘God given duty’ to be devoted homemakers. Though looked down upon socially, some actresses achieved fame and notoriety, through their work on stage as well as their lives outside the theater.

 

Wendt Studio, New Jersey, United States 'Helen Mathews, Length of hair 6 feet 4 inches' 19th century

 

Wendt Studio (New Jersey, United States)
Helen Mathews, Length of hair 6 feet 4 inches
19th century
Albumen print mounted on cabinet card

 

Guglielmo Plüschow (Wilhelm von Plüschow,1852-1930), Germany 'Female nude' Italy, c.1890

 

Guglielmo Plüschow (Wilhelm von Plüschow, 1852-1930, Germany)
Female nude
Italy, c. 1890
Albumen print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Bijoux 118 (catalog card)' 19th century

 

Unknown photographer
Bijoux 118 (catalog card)
19th century
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Bijoux 118 (catalog card)' 19th century (detail)

 

Unknown photographer
Bijoux 118 (catalog card) (detail)
19th century
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Bijoux 118 (catalog card)' 19th century (detail)

 

Unknown photographer
Bijoux 118 (catalog card) (detail)
19th century
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Entre Forains/L'Apache en Rut' 1895

 

Unknown photographer
Entre Forains/L’Apache en Rut
1895
Gelatin silver print

 

Stillfried & Andersen (Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz (1839-1911), Austria, and Hermann Andersen. 'Reclining female nude' Yokohama, Japan, 1880-1882?

 

Stillfried & Andersen (Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz (1839-1911) Austria) and Hermann Andersen
Reclining female nude
Yokohama, Japan, 1880-1882?
Hand-colored albumen print mounted on cabinet card

 

Unknown photographer. 'Group sexual encounter between a man and two women dressed in clerical costumes' 1883-1885

 

Unknown photographer
Group sexual encounter between a man and two women dressed in clerical costumes
1883-1885
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer, France 'Clothed man kneeling behind a nude woman' 1884-1886

 

Unknown photographer (France)
Clothed man kneeling behind a nude woman
1884-1886
Albumen print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Man and woman kissing while seated on a chair' 1890-1893

 

Unknown photographer
Man and woman kissing while seated on a chair
1890-1893
Gelatin silver copy print
Donated in 1954

 

Unknown photographer. 'Woman sitting on a man to engage in coitus' 1895-1898

 

Unknown photographer
Woman sitting on a man to engage in coitus
1895-1898
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer, France 'Man performing analinctus on another man' 1885-1900

Unknown photographer (France)
Man performing analinctus on another man
1885-1900
Albumen print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Two men performing mutual masturbation' 1880

 

Unknown photographer
Two men performing mutual masturbation
1880
Albumen print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Woman masturbating with a bedpost' 1887

 

Unknown photographer
Woman masturbating with a bedpost
1887
Albumen print

 

Unknown photographer (France) 'Man in robe receiving oral sex from a kneeling man' c.1890

 

Unknown photographer (France)
Man in robe receiving oral sex from a kneeling man
c.1890
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Woman spanking another woman with birch rod' 1895-1898

 

Unknown photographer
Woman spanking another woman with birch rod
1895-1898
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer (France) 'Woman holding a birch rod over a kneeling nude man' 1890-1900

 

Unknown photographer (France)
Woman holding a birch rod over a kneeling nude man
1890-1900
Gelatin silver print

 

The Kinsey Institute
Morrison Hall 313, Indiana University
Bloomington, Indiana, USA

Opening hours
Monday-Friday, 1 – 5pm

The Kinsey Institute website

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13
May
15

Exhibition: ‘Hold That Pose: Erotic Imagery in 19th Century Photography’ at the Kinsey Institute, Bloomington, Indiana Part 1

Exhibition dates: 23rd January – 4th September 2015

Kinsey Institute Gallery, Indiana University

*PLEASE NOTE THIS POSTING CONTAINS ART PHOTOGRAPHS OF HUMAN EROTIC ACTIVITY AND NUDITY – IF YOU DO NOT LIKE PLEASE DO NOT LOOK, FAIR WARNING HAS BEEN GIVEN*

 

 

A first for Art Blart – photographs from the world famous Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction!

After visiting the Kinsey Institute as part of my PhD in 2001 I was not allowed to publish any photographs from the collection for my research, which was a pity. Things have changed over the last decade and a half I am happy to say. As I observed in an email to Catherine Johnson-Roehr, Curator of Art, Artifacts, and Photographs recently, I understood that they had to be more sensitive than most institutions, especially with some of the material they hold in their collection. In reply, Catherine noted that while the Kinsey still had to be careful with the use of their materials especially when they are made public online, things had improved in the last 15 years. “Although we have collected artworks since the 1940s, we did not exhibit any of the materials until the 1990s and then on a very limited basis until 2002. When I arrived here in 2000, we had only a few tame images on our website, but now we have online galleries for some of our exhibitions (including all the juried art shows).”

Therefore, after some negotiation for online release, it is with great pleasure that I can feature 40 images in this two-part posting. Nobody should be offended by these glorious, historic photographs of the human body and a human action that everyone does, and it is fantastic to see the Kinsey opening up their collection to the world. We must oppose bigoted views such as that of Nazi Germany where they destroyed the library of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexology) headed by Magnus Hirschfeld, in 1933… by making these images visible in the world, not hiding them away behind closed doors. These are joyous photographs of the male and female body, a body in which everyone of us lives, desires, and enjoys pleasure.

Dr Marcus Bunyan

.
Many thankx for the Kinsey Institute for allowing me to publish the photographs in the posting. Please click on the photographs for a larger version of the image.

 

 

The Kinsey Institute research collection contains thousands of examples of erotic imagery produced over centuries by artists around the world. When the new technology of photography was announced in France in 1839, it was not long before it became the most popular medium for depictions of the nude figure, as well as erotic imagery. The first photographic process to be widely used was the daguerreotype, which produced a unique image. With the invention of other processes that used negatives to make multiple prints, the mass production of erotic photographs became possible. Hold That Pose features daguerreotypes, tintypes, albumen and gelatin silver prints, stereocards, and other examples of photographic processes that were used by professional photographers in the 19th century to produce and distribute erotic material.

 

 

Gallery wall of the exhibition 'Hold That Pose' at the Kinsey Institute

 

Gallery wall of the exhibition Hold That Pose at the Kinsey Institute

 

Photo process display case from the exhibition 'Hold That Pose' at the Kinsey Institute

 

Photo process display case from the exhibition Hold That Pose at the Kinsey Institute

 

Stanhopes on display from the exhibition 'Hold That Pose' at the Kinsey Institute

 

Stanhopes on display from the exhibition Hold That Pose at the Kinsey Institute

 

Unknown photographers 'Stanhope lenses and holders' 19th or early 20th century

Unknown photographers 'Stanhope lenses and holders' 19th or early 20th century

 

Unknown photographers
Stanhope lenses and holders
19th or early 20th century

 

Unknown photographer. 'Stanhope lens and holder' (detail) 19th or early 20th century

 

Unknown photographer
Stanhope lens and holder (detail)
19th or early 20th century

 

Stanhope lenses and holders, 19th or early 20th century

 

Stanhope lenses and holders
19th or early 20th century

 

Stanhopes derive their name from Lord Stanhope, who created the tiny rod-shaped lens before the invention of photography. In 1859, an entrepreneurial French inventor named René Prudent Patrice Dagron patented a process for making “cylindres photomicroscopiques”, and then created a successful business selling them as inexpensive novelty items. A photograph smaller than the head of a pin was mounted on a Stanhope lens, and then both were placed in a holder such as a pen knife, ring, or other small object. Stanhopes were popular souvenir items – many featured photographs of places or famous monuments such as the Eiffel Tower, but images of nude women or explicit sexual activity were also produced.

 

Gallery wall from the exhibition 'Hold That Pose' at the Kinsey Institute

 

Gallery wall from the exhibition Hold That Pose at the Kinsey Institute

 

Stereoscope display case from the exhibition 'Hold That Pose' at the Kinsey Institute

 

Stereoscope display case from the exhibition Hold That Pose at the Kinsey Institute

 

Stereoscope on display in the exhibition 'Hold That Pose' at the Kinsey Institute

Stereoscope on display in the exhibition 'Hold That Pose' at the Kinsey Institute

 

Stereoscope on display in the exhibition Hold That Pose at the Kinsey Institute

 

Stereo photography

The stereoscope, a device for viewing images in three dimensions, was invented in England in1838, just as the first photographic processes were being developed in France. The first stereo photographs were created using the daguerreotype process, which preserved an image on a highly polished silver plate. Initially a single camera was used to produce two nearly identical images that when viewed through a stereo device gave the illusion of seeing in 3-D, but soon a camera equipped with two lenses came into use for the production of stereo images. Stereoscopes became as popular as televisions are today, as a form of affordable home entertainment that could be enjoyed by children and adults.

 

Webster & Albee, Publishers, United States 'Woman standing on the back of a kneeling man' late 19th century

 

Webster & Albee (Publishers, United States)
Woman standing on the back of a kneeling man
Late 19th century
Hand-colored stereocard

See the installation photograph above and the card in the Stereoscope

 

Unknown photographer, France 'Two nude women in a room with a mirror' c. 1850-1855

 

Unknown photographer (France)
Two nude women in a room with a mirror
c. 1850-1855
Stereo daguerreotype under glass

 

Underwood & Underwood, United States 'Oh ! you naughty man' 1900

 

Underwood & Underwood (United States)
Oh ! you naughty man
1900
Stereocard

 

Unknown photographer. 'The Entanglement' Mid 19th century

 

Unknown photographer
The Entanglement
Mid 19th century
Hand-coloured stereocard

 

Unknown photographer, France 'Nude woman in a room with a mirror' c.1850-1855

 

Unknown photographer (France)
Nude woman in a room with a mirror
c. 1850-1855
Copy photograph of stereo daguerreotype

 

Unknown photographer. 'Photomontage of men and women engaged in sexual activity' 1895-1900

 

Unknown photographer
Photomontage of men and women engaged in sexual activity
1895-1900
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Photomontage of men and women engaged in sexual activity' 1895-1900 (detail)

 

Unknown photographer
Photomontage of men and women engaged in sexual activity (detail)
1895-1900
Gelatin silver print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Woman penetrating a woman with a dildo' 1880-1885

 

Unknown photographer
Woman penetrating a woman with a dildo
1880-1885
Gelatin silver copy print

 

Unknown photographer. 'Bathing in a Baetingplace' Japan, 1880-1890

 

Unknown photographer
Bathing in a Baetingplace
Japan, 1880-1890
Hand-colored albumen print

___ and ___ – bathing, attended by their ____ (maid) who is putting charcoal into the fire under the tub

 

Unknown photographer, United States 'Nude woman reclining on a fallen tree' c. 1880

 

Unknown photographer (United States)
Nude woman reclining on a fallen tree
c. 1880
Modern platinum print from glass plate negative
(printed in 2012 by Herbert Ascherman, Jr.)

 

Unknown photographer, Indiana, United States 'Erect penis' 19th century

 

Unknown photographer (Indiana, United States)
Erect penis
19th century
Modern gelatin silver print from glass plate negative

 

Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856-1931), Germany 'Man seated beside a tree' Taormina, Sicily, 1899

 

Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856-1931 Germany)
Man seated beside a tree
Taormina, Sicily, 1899
Albumen print

 

Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856-1931), Germany 'Two nude men standing in a forest' Taormina, Sicily, 1899

 

Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856-1931, Germany)
Two nude men standing in a forest
Taormina, Sicily, 1899
Albumen print

 

 

The Kinsey Institute
Morrison Hall 313, Indiana University
Bloomington, Indiana, USA

Opening hours
Monday-Friday, 1-5pm

The Kinsey Institute website

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10
May
15

Exhibition: ‘Nicolás Muller (1913-2000). Traces of exile’ at the Château de Tours

Exhibition dates: 22nd November 2014 – 31st May 2015

Curator: Chema Cones, a freelance curator

 

 

Another artist whom I knew very little about before researching for this posting. Another human being who survived the maelstrom of the Second World War by the skin of his teeth – obtaining a visa for Tangiers which, at the time, was the destination for thousands of Jews fleeing from Central Europe.

After seven years in Tangier – “Tangier, in December 1939, was an international city, almost a paradise in the middle of a world war-crazed … My stinging eyes, hands and my whole being to want to walk everywhere taking pictures” – he moved to Madrid, in order to go back to working as a photojournalist, to explore the regions of Spain, and to publish books of his work. This seems a strange country of choice to move to after the freedom of Tangiers, especially with the Fascist dictatorship of General Franco in full swing until 1975. I wonder what were his reasons behind this choice? Muller obviously loved the Spanish landscape and its people and you can track his journeys across the Iberian Peninsula by looking up the places of his photographs on a map of the region. He travelled everywhere, from North to South, from West to East. Apparently, he was an active member of Spain’s underground intelligentsia, but why would you go to a country if you had to be covert about your intelligence? Was he in exile from Hungary or France, or from himself?

The strongest photographs in this posting are the images from Tangiers, although I would love to see more of his portrait work (the image of Susana, 1937, below is a cracker). Unfortunately there are very few of his portrait photographs online. The best of his work has an elegant simplicity with a wonderful control of people, space and light.

Marcus

.
Many thankx to the Château de Tours for allowing me to publish the photographs in the posting. Please click on the photographs for a larger version of the image.

 

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Carénage du navire. Canaries' 1964

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Carénage du navire. Canaries [Fairing the ship. Canary Islands]
1964
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Country House. Madrid' 1950

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Country House, Madrid
1950
© Nicolás Muller

 

 

“La fotografía en España en el año 47 ofrecía un aspecto bastante original: por un lado Ortiz Echagüe, el venerado maestro que hacía sus libros y sus fotografías como si fueran pinturas o grabados preciosos y por otra parte… Campúa, el fotógrafo del Caudillo, Jalón Ángel, Kaulak en la calle Alcalá y Geynes que junto Amer Ventosa copaban las fotografías de ata sociedad.

Por lo demás la fotografía no estaba valorada en nada o en casi nada, mostrando una perspectiva desoladora.”

.
“Photography in Spain in 1947 offered a rather original appearance: first Ortiz Echague, the revered teacher who had his books and his photographs as if they were paintings or beautiful prints and elsewhere … Campúa, photographer of the Caudillo, Jalon Ángel, Kaulak in Alcala Street and Geynes and Amer Ventosa together photographs were permeating society.

Otherwise the picture was not worth anything or almost nothing, showing a bleak outlook.”

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Marché de nattes de paille' Tanger, Maroc, 1944

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Marché de nattes de paille [Straw mats at the market]
Tangier, Morocco, 1944
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Danseuse' Larache, Maroc, 1942

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Danseuse [Dancer]
Larache, Maroc, 1942
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Portrait of Susana' 1937

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Portrait of Susana
1937
© Nicolás Muller

 

“En mis retratos, si hubiera algo de interés, no será por el retratista, sino por parte del retratado. Me gustaba hacer retratos para conocer al personaje.”

.
“In my portraits, there was something of interest, it is not for the portrait, but for the sitter. I liked doing portraits to know the character.”

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Bajo la Lluvia' Portugal, 1939

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Bajo la Lluvia [In the Rain]
Portugal, 1939
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Descargando sal' Oporto, Portugal, 1939

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Descargando sal [Unloading salt]
Oporto, Portugal, 1939
© Nicolás Muller

 

“In Porto I liked the harbor full of bustle, with its vivid colors … women with heavy downloading caryatids necks baskets of salt and coal. Other women, always with baskets on their heads, downloading large bales of dried cod, and among both men lying or sitting in the sun, watching the clouds, playing cards …”

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Chinchón II' Madrid, 1950

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Chinchón II
Madrid, 1950
Chinchón II

 

 

“Although little known in France, Nicolás Muller (Orosháza, Hungary, 1913 – Andrín, Spain, 2000) was one of the leading exponents of Hungarian social photography. Like many of his compatriots – Eva Besnyö, Brassaï, Robert Capa, André Kertész and Kati Horna – he spent much of his life in exile: born into a bourgeois Jewish family, he left Hungary shortly after the Anschluss in 1938, spending time in Paris, Portugal and Morocco before finally setting in Spain. This experience, and the situations and people he encountered along the way, did much to shape Muller’s work.

Like many of his fellow Hungarian photographers at the time, in the 1930s Muller worked in a humanist, documentary vein, evincing a strong sense of sympathy for the world of labour and the most modest members of society. His interest in the working man’s experience would remain a hallmark of his photographs. As the social and political contexts changed, he photographed agricultural labourers and dockers in the ports of Marseille and Porto, then children and street vendors in Tangiers, and life in the countryside. Later, he photographed cultural and social figures in Madrid.

The exhibition at the Château de Tours – the first show in France dedicated exclusively to this photographer – brings together a hundred images and documents from the archives kept by his daughter Ana Muller. This chronologically presented selection made by curator Chema Conesa follows the career and travels of this alert, curious photographer from 1935 to 1981.

Nicolás Muller was given his first camera at the age of thirteen, and immediately began to explore its capacity to express a certain idea of the world and of human beings. He maintained this passion for photography when studying law and politics at the Szeged University. His camera, and the feeling that he could use it to convey the adventure of living, were the formative constants of his life and art.

“I learned that photography can be a weapon, an authentic document of reality. […] I became an engaged person, an engaged photographer.”

During his four years at university he would also explore the Hungarian plains, whether on foot, by train or by bike, photographing men and women, the interiors of houses, scenes of rural life and the workers building the dykes on the River Tisza.

His early work is dominated by this rural aspect of Hungary – a country that had lost a significant fraction of its territory under the Treaty of Versailles (1920). It is also influenced by the avant-garde aesthetic of the day, with its diagonal perspectives and high- and low-angle shots.

When Nazi Germany annexed Austria in 1938 (the Anschluss), Hungary aligned itself with the fascist regime and Muller decided to continue his photographic career elsewhere. He came to Paris, where he was in touch with other Hungarian photographers such as Brassaï, Robert Capa and André Kertész. He found work with periodicals such as Match, France Magazine and Regards, which published his photographs of working life in Hungary and Marseille. This theme continued to occupy him during his short stay in General Salazar’s Portugal, until he was imprisoned and then expelled.

Through his father, who had stayed in Hungary and had close links with Rotary Club International, Muller managed to obtain a visa for Tangiers – which, at the time, was the destination for thousands of Jews fleeing from Central Europe. The city roused him to a state of almost febrile creativity. “My eyes, my hands and my whole being are itching to go everywhere, to take photographs wherever I can.” His tireless portrayal of Tangiers also shows him learning to deal with a new challenge: intense light.

In Tangiers Muller contributed photographs to a number of books, such as Tanger por el Jalifa and Estampas marroquis, and did reportage work on the towns of the “Spanish Zone” commissioned by the Spanish High Commission in Morocco. After seven years in Tangiers – “the happiest years of my life” – Muller decided to move to Madrid in order to go back to working as a photojournalist, to explore the regions of Spain, and to publish books of his work.

As the reputation of his studio grew, so he frequented the writers, philosophers and poets who met at the legendary Café Gijón and around the Revista d’Occidente. An active member of Spain’s underground intelligentsia, he also made portraits of artist and writer friends, including Pío Baroja, Camilo José Cela, Eugeni d’Ors and Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and of figures such as the pianist Ataúlfo Argenta and the torero Manolete (Muller’s photo captures him not long before his death).

Nicolás Muller retired at the age of 68 and moved to Andrín (Asturias), where he died in 2000.”

Press release from the Château de Tours website

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Castro Urdiales (Santander)' 1968

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Castro Urdiales (Santander)
1968
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Aiguisage de la faux. Hongrie' 1935

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Aiguisage de la faux. Hongrie [Sharpening the scythe. Hungary]
1935
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'San Cristóbal de Entreviñas' Zamora, 1957

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
San Cristóbal de Entreviñas
Zamora, 1957
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller

 

 

“And in Spain, Muller, he found the picture of the war, depressed by the legacy of the war and destroyed by repression and losses, a strange climate where lived traditions and religion country, big cities and the inland villages, children and widows of war. In our country, there were few references of the new documentary that took place in the rest of Europe, not to say that they are almost non-existent except in the case of Jose Ortiz Echague. You could say that with Catalá Roca, Muller is one of the most important photographers of the era in which he portrayed the society of Spain…

His social photography is part of this new documentary, from a very specific perspective, where the photographer has to be absent from the picture, it must be maintained as an external agent. Under this premise, Nicolas Muller, is a hunter of moments immortalized through his camera. He observed from the outside, does not seek to intervene in the context, it seeks to be faithful to the situation, the purity of the image and emotions. The artist is absent on the scene and that allows you to create a picture where the main protagonists are the people who participate in the moment. The exhibition held in 1947 for the West Magazine which expresses the new artistic concepts which would give photography in the context of modernity. For this exhibition portrayed famous people of Spanish society, mostly intellectuals and cultural figures as Azorín, Ortega y Gasset, Menendez Pidal, Marañón or John Doe … With this starting point, Nicolas Muller discovers the Spanish geography and unleashes the photographic socialism, traveling through villages and cities. In this series, the photographer welcomes environments, customs and influences of the inhabitants of the places where he spent days or months…

If a photographer wants to be the chronicler of the time in which he lives you have to convey reality and not an image that changes or imagines himself.”

Text translated from “Nicolás Muller, Social Photography in the War,” on the Madriz website, 15th January 2014

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Séville' 1951

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Séville
1951
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Semana Santa (Cuenca)' 1950

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Semana Santa (Cuenca) [Easter (Cuenca)]
1950
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Tatoo' Bordeaux, France, 1938

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Tatoo
Bordeaux, France, 1938
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Arcos de la Frontera (Cádiz)' 1957

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Arcos de la Frontera (Cádiz)
1957
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Three men' Marseilles, France, 1938

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Tres hombres [Three men]
Marseilles, France, 1938
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Le Lévrier et la modèle' Tanger, Maroc, 1940

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Le Lévrier et la modèle [The Greyhound and model]
Tangier, Morocco, 1940
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Fête du Mouloud I' Tanger, Maroc, 1942

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Fête du Mouloud I – Al Mawlid I [Mouloud festival I]
Tangier, Morocco, 1942
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Fête du Mouloud II' Tanger, Maroc, 1942

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Fête du Mouloud II [Mouloud festival II]
Tangier, Morocco, 1942
© Nicolás Muller

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Tangier, Morocco' 1942

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Tánger, Marruecos [Tangier, Morocco]
1942
© Nicolás Muller

 

“Tangier, in December 1939, was an international city, almost a paradise in the middle of a world war-crazed … My stinging eyes, hands and my whole being to want to walk everywhere taking pictures.”

 

Nicolás Muller. 'Casares' Malaga, 1967

 

Nicolás Muller (1913-2000)
Casares
Malaga, 1967
© Nicolás Muller

 

 

Château de Tours
25 avenue André Malraux
37000 Tours

Opening hours:
Tuesday to Friday: 2pm – 6pm
Saturday and Sunday: 2.15pm – 6pm

Château de Tours website

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03
May
15

Exhibition: ‘J.M.W. Turner: Painting Set Free’ at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Getty Center, Los Angeles

Exhibition dates: 24th February – 24th May 2015

Curators: Julian Brooks, curator of drawings, and Peter Björn Kerber, assistant curator of paintings

 

No words are necessary.

Marcus

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Many thankx to the J. Paul Getty Museum for allowing me to publish the photographs in the posting. Please click on the photographs for a larger version of the image.

 

 

Water, Wind, and Whales

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth' Exhibited 1842

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth
Exhibited 1842
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 91.4 x 121.9 cm (36 x 48 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Norham Castle, Sunrise' About 1845

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Norham Castle, Sunrise
About 1845
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 90.8 x 121.9 cm (35 3/4 x 48 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Turner first saw Norham, bordering Scotland on the river Tweed in Northumberland, in 1797. He was at the limits of his trip to northern England, when he also visited Buttermere, seen in the painting of nearly fifty years earlier shown nearby. After that first visit he made watercolours showing the ruin at sunrise, and visits in 1801 and 1831 resulted in further views. Here, finally, is one of a series of unfinished, unexhibited paintings reworking his monochrome Liber Studiorum landscape prints. Pure colours rather than contrasting tones express the blazing light as the historic building and landscape merge.

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It is a hundred years since Turner’s painting, Norham Castle, Sunrise, went on display for the first time. The painting was among a group of twenty-one previously unknown, and essentially ‘unfinished’, canvases that were the focal point of a new Turner room inaugurated at the Tate Gallery (now Tate Britain) in February 1906.

These pictures had entered to the national collection in 1856, but remained uncatalogued. This was chiefly due to a lack of adequate hanging space for the many oil paintings in the collection. But a bigger issue was the concern that the images would not be properly understood by the public. Gallery officials themselves had serious reservations, considering them only ‘rude beginnings’ or even ‘mere botches’.

Consequently, it was not until 1906, when a new generation began to look at Turner afresh, that space was made for the first batch of pictures disinterred from the National Gallery’s basement. These revelatory ‘new’ works were quite unlike the detailed pictures that the artist had exhibited. Their unresolved brushwork and luminous palette seemed to confirm the patriotic belief that Turner (and John Constable) had paved the way for the French Impressionists.

During the last hundred years, Norham Castle has gradually become the embodiment of many ideas about Turner’s later style, above all, its reduction of content to a minimum giving emphasis to the play of colour and light. This display explores the origins of Turner’s interest in Norham Castle as a subject and charts the impact the picture has had during its recent history.

Norham Castle, Sunrise: from incomprehension to icon,” on the Tate website

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Whalers', exhibited 1845

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Whalers
Exhibited 1845
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 91.1 x 121.9 cm (35 7/8 x 48 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Continental Travels

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'The Dogano, San Giorgio, Citella from the Steps of the Europa' Exhibited 1842

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
The Dogano, San Giorgio, Citella from the Steps of the Europa
Exhibited 1842
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 61.6 x 92.7 cm (24 1/4 x 36 1/2 in.)
Tate: Presented by Robert Vernon 1847
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Approach to Venice' Exhibited 1844

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Approach to Venice
Exhibited 1844
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 62 x 94 cm (24 7/16 x 37 in.)
National Gallery of Art, Washington, Andrew W. Mellon Collection, 1937.1.110
Image courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Venice: Santa Maria della Salute, Night Scene with Rockets' about 1840

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Venice: Santa Maria della Salute, Night Scene with Rockets
About 1840
Watercolor and bodycolor
Unframed: 24 x 31.5 cm (9 7/16 x 12 3/8 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'The Sun of Venice Going to Sea' Exhibited 1843

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
The Sun of Venice Going to Sea
Exhibited 1843
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 61.6 x 92.1 cm (24 1/4 x 36 1/4 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Venice at Sunrise from the Hotel Europa, with Campanile of San Marco' About 1840

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Venice at Sunrise from the Hotel Europa, with Campanile of San Marco
About 1840
Watercolor
Unframed: 19.8 x 28 cm (7 13/16 x 11 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

The large group of watercolours which resulted from Turner’s last visit to Venice in 1840 is characterised by a delicious liquidity which unifies air and water in layered, coloured mists. He stayed near the mouth of the Grand Canal at the Hotel Europe, from where he made sketches over the rooftops after dark. Alternatively, from a gongola off the great Piazzetta, he was able to see the sun set down the wide canal of the Giudecca.

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Ehrenbreitstein' 1841

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Ehrenbreitstein
1841
Watercolor and pen and ink
Unframed: 23.7 x 30 cm (9 5/16 x 11 13/16 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Rain Clouds' About 1845

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Rain Clouds
About 1845
Watercolor
Unframed: 29.1 x 44 cm (11 7/16 x 17 5/16 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'The Blue Rigi, Sunrise' 1842

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
The Blue Rigi, Sunrise
1842
Watercolor
Unframed: 29.7 x 45 cm (11 11/16 x 17 11/16 in.)
Tate: Purchased with assistance from the National Heritage Memorial Fund, the Art Fund (with a contribution from the Wolfson Foundation and including generous support from David and Susan Gradel, and from other members of the public through the Save the Blue Rigi appeal) Tate Members and other donors 2007
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

 

“First major West Coast international loan exhibition focuses on Turner’s late work; Famed 19th-century master created many of his most renowned pieces after age 60.

One of the most influential painters of nature who ever lived, Joseph Mallord William Turner (English, 1775-1851) was especially creative and inventive in the latter years of his life, producing many of his most famous and important paintings after the age of 60. On view at the J. Paul Getty Museum February 24, 2015, through May 24, 2015, J.M.W. Turner: Painting Set Free brings together more than 60 key oil paintings and watercolors from this culminating period of his career, and is the West Coast’s first major exhibition of Turner’s work.

“J.M.W. Turner is the towering figure of British 19th century art, a ground-breaking innovator in his own day whose relevance and status as a seeming harbinger of 20th century ‘modernism; has made him an inspiration to generations of later artists up to the present day. A successful and well-known public figure in his own day, Turner produced some of his most innovative and challenging work during the last 16 years of his life,” explains Timothy Potts, director of the J. Paul Getty Museum. “He was frequently mocked and misunderstood for his choice of unusual subject matters, his experimentation with different canvas formats, and his pioneering free and spontaneous techniques in both oil and watercolor. While Turner could not knowingly have anticipated future artistic trends, he is seen today by many as a prophet of modernism because of his rough, gestural brushwork and quasi-abstract subject matter. His work captured the natural landscape’s atmosphere and color like no other artist before him, and conveyed the awe-inspiring power of the elements as never before. This exhibition celebrates Turner as the most innovative and experimental artist of his time, and I have no doubt that it will be inspiring to a new generation of artists working in California today.”

“The exhibition shows an artist at the top of his game, totally at ease with his media, and still keen to push boundaries and challenge assumptions. We see how Turner was modern in his own time, but the results are astonishing even for us today,” said Julian Brooks, one of the exhibition curators.
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The Sea 

In his later years, Turner’s continuing fascination with the sea reached a zenith. Although he respected existing conventions of marine painting, particularly its 17th-century Dutch roots, he consistently moved beyond them, turning the water into a theater for drama and effect. At the Royal Academy exhibitions, he confounded viewers with his bold portrayals of modern maritime action – whales and their hunters battling for survival – while striving to capture the mysterious depths and forces of the elements. Never having witnessed a whale hunt himself, he included a reference to “Beale’s Voyage” in the catalogues, acknowledging that his source of inspiration was Thomas Beale’s Natural History of the Sperm Whale (1839). (Herman Melville consulted the same book when writing Moby-Dick, published in 1851.)

The London press at the time greeted Turner’s whaling pictures, such as Hurrah! for the Whaler Erebus! Another Fish!, 1846, with scathing attacks, lambasting their yellow palette and lack of finish. The Almanack of the Month printed a cartoon of a Turner painting with a large mop and a bucket labeled “yellow,” and opined that his pictures resembled a lobster salad.
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Travel 

In addition to the sea, Turner’s insatiable appetite for history, different cultures, and sublime natural scenery drew him time and again to Continental Europe, where he observed not only spectacular sites such as ancient ruins, medieval castles, jagged mountain peaks, and meandering rivers, but also local customs and dress. On such travels he made numerous watercolor sketches, which effectively captured fleeting effects of nature on paper. These works display a complex layering of color animated through the pulsing energy of turbulent handling. They demonstrate both Turner’s commitment to observed natural effects and his unwavering obsession with the vagaries and delights of watercolor, a medium he had indisputably made his own. Some of the finished watercolors he made for sale after his trips, such as The Blue Rigi, Sunrise, 1842, represent pinnacles in the use of watercolor technique.

Turner was especially captivated by the particular combination of light and color he found in Venice, and revisited the city several times. He traveled lightly, usually alone, making few concessions to his age or failing strength, and drew constantly in his sketchbooks. Turner’s many images of Venice were among his most potent late works, influencing later artists such as James Abbott McNeill Whistler (American, 1834-1903) and Claude Monet (French, 1840-1926).

For Turner, watercolor was the perfect medium to capture Venice’s aqueous and luminous effects. While based on on-the-spot sketches done there in 1840, Turner’s later paintings of Venice drew out the city’s essence and spirit rather than its exact topography. His Venice was often touched with a melancholy that echoed the romantic fatalism popularized by writers such as Lord Byron, offering a warning from history to Britain’s rise as a commercial empire.
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Poetry 

Turner was deeply interested in poetry and often paired his paintings with lines of text in order to elucidate their themes. In some cases he authored the poems himself but often he quoted celebrated 18th- and 19th-century British poets such as Thomas Gray and, most especially, Lord Bryon. Throughout the Getty exhibition, many of the lines of poetry or prose that he chose or wrote are reunited with his pictures on the gallery walls. For example, the lines “The moon is up, and yet it is not night/ The sun as yet disputes the day with her” from Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1812-18) were chosen, and slightly altered by Turner to accompany two paintings: Modern Rome- Campo Vaccino, exhibited 1839, and Approach to Venice, exhibited 1844, which both feature the setting sun and a rising moon but also evoke the rise and fall of empires.
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Contemporary Events 

Much of Tuner’s later work reflects on contemporary events including the modern state of Italy, the legacy of the Napoleonic Wars, and the spectacular fires that ravaged the Palace of Westminster and the Tower of London in 1834 and 1841, respectively. In addition, Turner was the first major European artist to engage with innovations such as steam power, as seen in Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth, 1842, which shows this much-vaunted new technology at the mercy of the awesome power of the elements.
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Technique 

Perhaps nothing demonstrates Turner’s virtuosity as a painter better than the stories of his performances on “Varnishing Days.” The Royal Academy and the British Institution would set aside a short period of time for artists to put final touches on their work before an exhibition opened to the public. Turner reveled in the competitive jostling and repartee that occurred on these occasions. In his later years, he would frequently submit canvases with only the roughest indications of color and form, speedily bringing them to completion on-site. Eyewitnesses record that Turner painted most of The Hero of a Hundred Fights, 1800-10, reworked and exhibited 1847, and Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th October 1834, 1834-1835, on their respective varnishing days.
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Pairs and Shapes 

In his later years, Turner was as creative in his approach to media, materials, and techniques as he was in his choice of subject matter. He created works that offer some of his most dazzling displays of color, audacious handling, and complex iconographies. From 1840 to 1846, the artist employed a smaller canvas size for a series of paintings, which were often conceived as pairs expressing opposites, such as two that were exhibited in 1842: Peace – Burial at Sea and War. The Exile and the Rock Limpet. These were principally square but could also be round or octagonal. Exploring states of consciousness, optics, and the emotive power of color, they shocked and mystified his audience, who thought them the products of senility or madness. Painted near the end of his life, these inventive works are a coda to Turner’s career, representing a synthesis of his innovations in technique, composition and theme.

Turner died in 1851 at age 76, leaving the majority of his work to the English nation along with an intended bequest to support impoverished artists. In the years since, while popular and scholarly ideas about his work have changed, he inarguably emerges as one of the most beloved figures and popular painters in the history of the United Kingdom.

This exhibition was organized by Tate Britain in association with the J. Paul Getty Museum and the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. It is supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. The Getty Museum curators of the exhibition are Julian Brooks, curator of drawings, and Peter Björn Kerber, assistant curator of paintings.

The exhibition is accompanied by the publication J.M.W. Turner: Painting Set Free. Edited by David Blayney Brown, Amy Concannon, and Sam Smiles, this 250-page volume is richly illustrated.

  • Water, Wind, and Whales
  • Continental Travels
  • Contemporary Subjects
  • History, Myth, and Meaning
  • Pairs and Shapes

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Press release from the J. Paul Getty Museum website

 

Contemporary Subjects

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, October 16, 1834' 1834-35

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, October 16, 1834
1834-35
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 92.1 x 123.2 cm (36 1/4 x 48 1/2 in.)
Philadelphia Museum of Art: The John Howard McFadden Collection, 1928

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Fire at the Grand Storehouse of the Tower of London' 1841

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Fire at the Grand Storehouse of the Tower of London
1841
Watercolor
Unframed: 23.5 x 32.5 cm (9 1/4 x 12 13/16 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

 

This watercolour study was originally one of nine consecutive leaves (D27846 – D27854; Turner Bequest CCLXXXIII 1-9) in a sketchbook. They have previously been documented with varying degrees of certainty as showing the 1834 fire at the Houses of Parliament beside the River Thames in central London, but are here identified as representing the similarly large and dramatic fire which broke out at the moated Tower of London on 30 October 1841, destroying the late seventeenth-century Grand Storehouse (see the Introduction to the sketchbook for detailed discussion).

Conflagration of the Tower of London, on the Night of the 30th of October 1841, a colour lithograph published on 3 November of a view ‘drawn upon the spot by William Oliver’ (1804–1853) shows the Tower complex from the north, with flames and smoke pouring from the windows and rafters of the Grand Storehouse, largely obscuring the White Tower. This can be compared with the present work, the most precisely detailed of Turner’s studies in terms of architectural features. (See the Introduction for other comparisons between Turner’s studies and contemporary prints.) The pale blue form towards the left is presumably intended as the White Tower; otherwise lacking in detail, the inner faces of its corner turrets are shown receding in steep perspective, although in fact the north-west turret is cylindrical. Turner has included details of rafters, a pediment and what seems to be the clock tower of the Grand Storehouse (which fell in at quite an early stage of the fire), but it is not clear whether he intended to show the scene directly from the north, aligned directly on the façade of the storehouse, or obliquely from the north-east, which would explain the relative positions of the clock tower and the White Tower.

In addition to the newspaper stories extensively quoted in the sketchbook’s Introduction, the following details from the Times relate to the raising of the alarm late on the evening of Saturday 30 October:

[Sergeant] Edwards [‘of the 1st Battalion of Fusilier Guards’] states, that while he was in the Nag’s Head public-house, in Postern-row [opposite the north side of the Tower], he perceived, to his great surprise, a light through one of the windows, just above the bomb proof part of the Bowyer Tower. He went out and crossed to the railings at the top of the moat by which the Tower is surrounded, and watched the light for a minute or two. At first it appeared but little larger than the glimmer of a candle, but it suddenly increased to such an extent, that no doubt was left upon his mind that the place was on fire.1

The present Tower study is notable in being the only one of the nine to incorporate gouache: a touch of white is combined with scratching out to render a bright light through a window of the towers silhouetted towards the left. This may be an effect Turner observed or imagined, or perhaps the report caught his attention.

Addressing the sequence of studies in the context of the traditional former 1834 identification, Katherine Solender felt that only this and D27850, D27853 and D27854 included ‘shapes that can be remotely identified with the Parliamentary complex’, in this case possibly indicating the roof and lantern of Westminster Hall on the right, with the Towers of Westminster Abbey beyond to the left.2 In his extended catalogue entry for Turner’s painting The Burning of the House of Lords and Commons, 16th October, 1834, exhibited at the British Institution in 1835 (Philadelphia Museum of Art),3 Richard Dorment presented a sustained interpretation of the this and the other eight watercolour studies in terms of a sequence reflecting the topography and chronology of the 1834 Westminster fire.4

Matthew Imms, April 2014 from catalogue entry to David Blayney Brown (ed.), J.M.W. Turner: Sketchbooks, Drawings and Watercolours, September 2014

 

1. ‘The Tower of London. Destructive Conflagration. (Additional Particulars.)’, The Times, Tuesday 2 November 1841, p. 5.
2. Solender 1984, pp. 50-1; see also Lyles 1992, p.72.
3. Martin Butlin and Evelyn Joll, The Paintings of J.M.W. Turner, revised ed., New Haven and London 1984, pp. 207-10 no. 359, pl. 364 (colour).
4. Dorment 1986, pp. 400-1; see also Lyles 1992, p. 72.

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'The Hero of a Hundred Fights' About 1800 - 1810, reworked and exhibited 1847

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
The Hero of a Hundred Fights
About 1800 – 1810, reworked and exhibited 1847
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 90.8 x 121.3 cm (35 3/4 x 47 3/4 in.)
Framed: 127.5 x 158.5 x 18 cm (50 3/16 x 62 3/8 x 7 1/16 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

This canvas was originally an exploration of industrial machinery, but it was reworked to show the moment when a bronze statue of the Duke of Wellington was removed from its mould. Using the intense light of the foundry to obscure the figure, Turner transforms Wellington into an ethereal presence. The image is in stark contrast to Turner’s carefully researched battle scenes. Here, tone and colour are employed to endow a national hero with elemental force.

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'The Disembarkation of Louis-Philippe at the Royal Clarence Yard, Gosport, 8 October 1844' About 1844 - 1845

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
The Disembarkation of Louis-Philippe at the Royal Clarence Yard, Gosport, 8 October 1844
About 1844 – 1845
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 90.8 x 121.3 cm (35 3/4 x 47 3/4 in.)
Framed: 128.4 x 159 x 8.3 cm (50 9/16 x 62 5/8 x 3 1/4 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Turner visited Portsmouth to record the arrival of the French king, who was on a State Visit. He made numerous sketches of the event and also painted two unfinished oils: one showing the king’s arrival, the other his disembarkation. Both are principally concerned with the atmosphere of the occasion, concentrating on the crowd of onlookers. Turner had met Louis-Philippe when the king was living in exile at Twickenham in the 1810s. Contact between them was renewed in the mid-1830s and he was invited to dine with him at his château at Eu in 1845.

 

History, Myth, and Meaning

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Regulus' 1828, reworked 1837

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Regulus
1828, reworked 1837
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 89.5 x 123.8 cm (35 1/4 x 48 3/4 in.)
Framed: 113.5 x 146 x 9.3 cm (44 11/16 x 57 1/2 x 3 11/16 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Mercury Sent to Admonish Aeneas' Exhibited 1850

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Mercury Sent to Admonish Aeneas
Exhibited 1850
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 90.2 x 120.6 cm (35 1/2 x 47 1/2 in.)
Framed: 129.6 x 160.7 x 18.5 cm (51 x 63 1/4 x 7 5/16 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Mercury and Argus' Before 1836

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Mercury and Argus
Before 1836
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 151.8 x 111.8 cm (59 3/4 x 44 in.)
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Purchased 1951
Photo: © National Gallery of Canada

 

Pairs and Shapes

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Peace - Burial at Sea' Exhibited 1842

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Peace – Burial at Sea
Exhibited 1842
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 87 x 86.7 cm (34 1/4 x 34 1/8 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'War. The Exile and the Rock Limpet' Exhibited 1842

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
War. The Exile and the Rock Limpet
Exhibited 1842
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 79.4 x 79.4 cm (31 1/4 x 31 1/4 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Light and Color (Goethe's Theory) - The Morning After the Deluge - Moses Writing the Book of Genesis' Exhibited 1843

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Light and Color (Goethe’s Theory) – The Morning After the Deluge – Moses Writing the Book of Genesis
Exhibited 1843
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 78.7 x 78.7 cm (31 x 31 in.)
Framed: 103.5 x 103.5 x 12 cm (40 3/4 x 40 3/4 x 4 3/4 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

 

The nine finished paintings are being shown in a dedicated room of the exhibition which brings new perspectives on Turner’s work during the final period of his life. At the time of their creation Turner’s square canvases were his most controversial and they were famously subjected to a hail of abuse in the press. Even Ruskin, a devoted fan, described Turner’s work by 1846 as ‘indicative of mental disease’. The show will reposition Turner in his old age as a challenging and daring artist who continued his lifelong engagement with the changing world around him right up until his death in 1851.

When Turner began painting on square canvases in the later years of his life between 1840 and 1846 they were a new format for the artist to be working in. In works known as Shade and Darkness and Light and Colour, both exhibited 1843, it can be seen how Turner developed his dramatic use of the vortex, a technique characteristic in his later work.

The display of the square canvases, along with one unfinished square composition, has been made possible by the important loans of Glaucus and Scylla 1841 (Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, USA), and Dawn of Christianity 1841 (Ulster Museum, Belfast, UK). The group of works includes some of Turner’s most iconic pairings such as Peace andWar, both exhibited 1842 (Tate). The exhibition as a whole will also include a number of pairings from throughout this period of his life, showing Turner’s fondness for working in sets or sequences in his old age.

“Turner’s controversial square canvases to be brought together for the first time,” from the Tate website 13 March 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'The Angel Standing in the Sun' Exhibited 1846

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
The Angel Standing in the Sun
Exhibited 1846
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 78.7 x 78.7 cm (31 x 31 in.)
Framed: 103.5 x 103.5 x 12 cm (40 3/4 x 40 3/4 x 4 3/4 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Ancient Rome: Agrippina Landing with the Ashes of Germanicus' Exhibited 1839

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Ancient Rome: Agrippina Landing with the Ashes of Germanicus
Exhibited 1839
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 91.4 x 121.9 cm (36 x 48 in.)
Tate: Accepted by the nation as part of the Turner Bequest 1856
Photo: © Tate, London 2014

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851) 'Modern Rome - Campo Vaccino' 1839

 

Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775-1851)
Modern Rome – Campo Vaccino
1839
Oil on canvas
Unframed: 91.8 x 122.6 cm (36 1/8 x 48 1/4 in.)
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

 

 

The J. Paul Getty Museum
1200 Getty Center Drive
Los Angeles, California 90049

Opening hours:
Tues – Friday 10 am – 5.30 pm
Saturday 10 am – 9 pm
Sunday 10 am – 9 pm
Monday closed

The J. Paul Getty Museum website

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Dr Marcus Bunyan

Dr Marcus Bunyan is an Australian artist and writer. His work explores the boundaries of identity and place. He writes the Art Blart blog which reviews exhibitions in Melbourne, Australia and posts exhibitions from around the world. He has a Dr of Philosophy from RMIT University, Melbourne and is currently studying a Master of Art Curatorship at The University of Melbourne.

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